Essay on industrial revolution in europe
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The Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Europe Essay examples
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England: Birthplace of the Industrial Revolution
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SparkNotes: Europe (): Britain's Industrial Revolution ()
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Tour Management Tourism Economics Travel Writing Veterinary Medicine and Zoology Animal Anatomy Large Animals Horses,Sheep,Cows, Small Animals Dogs,Cats,Rabbits, Wildlife and Fisheries Zoology The industrial revolution began in Great Britain in the late s before spreading to the rest of Europe. The first European countries to be industrialized after England were Belgium, France and the German states. Lancashire cotton mill, steam powered weaving shed, photo published in More Pictures of British History, circa Spain, Portugal, Austria-Hungary, Italy and the Ottoman Empire started to industrialize very late in the 19th century.
Belgium was the second country in Europe in which the industrial revolution took place and the first nation in continental Europe. In France, industrialization was slower, due to its lack of coal and iron. By the end of the 19th century, the majority of French workers were still employed in non-manufacturing jobs.
When France did fully industrialize, textile and furniture manufacturing became the dominant industries. In Germany, industrialization was also slow, due to the region being divided into several independent states rather than a unified country, but Germany eventually became a global leader in chemical research in industrial and university labs. The industrial revolution in America began after two textile manufacturers, Samuel Slater and Francis Cabot Lowell, introduced mechanized textile manufacturing to the United States in the late s and early s.
Plan of the city of Lowell, Massachusetts, illustration by Sidney and Neff, circa During the first industrial revolution, which occurred from between and , industrialization was more prevalent in the northern states while the south remained primarily agrarian.
Middle Ages vs the Industrial Revolution essay
Although the first industrial revolution began in Great Britain and then spread to the United States, the second industrial revolution, which saw the rise in electricity, petroleum and steel, actually began in the United States and then spread to Europe and the rest of the world. By the s, the United States surpassed Britain for first place in manufacturing output and by the beginning of the 20th century, per capita incomes in the United States were double that of Germany and France, and 50 percent higher than Britain. The industrial revolution came late to India, due to its complicated political and economic relationship with Great Britain.
Although India, which was a British colony, dominated the global cotton textile markets in the 18th century, the Indian textile industry took a hit when the industrial revolution began in Great Britain. The use of steam power in British mills reduced the cost of British cotton by 85 percent, making its textile goods internationally competitive for the first time. Britain quickly became a leading world exporter of textiles, displacing India in the process.
In addition, in order to protect its new textile industry, Great Britain began to restrict textile imports from India and other countries by establishing tariffs and other protective policies. Great Britain instead began to export its own textiles to India. New colonial laws forced Indian farmers to devote most of their fields to cotton crops, instead of food, which led to widespread famine and poverty in India.
As a result, it took decades before India started adopting modern industrial practices, such as steam power and mechanized spinning and weaving, in its textile manufacturing. Women workers in a booming Bombay textile mill, circa The industrial revolution finally came to India in , when the first steam-powered cotton mill in Asia opened in Bombay. Large-scale industrialization of Japan began around after a political revolution brought into power an oligarchy that ruled through the name of a teenaged emporer named Meiji.
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These Meiji-era political leaders felt that industrialization and a modernized military were vital in preventing the colonization and exploitation of Japan by western countries. The new government launched a massive industrialization program, bringing in scholars and scientists from Europe and the United States to help transform the economy.
Japan adopted steam power, began constructing steel works and built a national railroad system. Japan then exported its silk abroad in exchange for foreign goods like modern weapons.
Mammoth plant of the Mitsui Company, boiling cocoons and reeling silk, Maebashi, Japan, circa The industrial revolution reached the Russian Empire much later than most other European and Western countries. The emancipation reform of helped transform Russia from a predominantly agrarian society to a more industrialized society. After the reform, the newly emancipated serfs, which were peasants that originally worked for the feudal government, began migrating to the cities in search of jobs.
Between and , coal production grew by 1, percent to over 6. In , Russia began construction on the Trans-Siberian Railway, which eventually became the longest railway line in the world.
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